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Development of artificial turf
writer: admin    Date: 2015-05-17 19:49
The emergence of artificial turf stadium dates back to the 1960s. They are the invention of a military project in the United States, to improve the urban teenager's body. It is called "Astro" turf, it quickly became an affordable and durable and needs little maintenance of natural turf maintenance alternatives, and quickly applied to American football, baseball and soccer stadium.
Inspired by it, many managers have adopted this stadium artificial turf technology. After a period of time, it was found to not only save money, but also led to the - the emergence of a series of problems. Stronger friction, reducing the buffering capacity, resulting in an increase in injured athletes. Astro turf even spawned a special disease: astro toes. A very serious injuries due to the big toe and ground synthetic materials resulting squeeze, squeeze the toe to the foot surface, torn ligaments and other tissues. If an athlete at the top of this turf slide or fall down when it's like a carpet of turf will make the players feel the burn like pain.
Players and feel of natural turf on very different artificial turf training suited also cause problems. Training very hard game on artificial turf, players do not always feel very safe. Many people complain that football rebound is not normal, because the plastic artificial turf caused abnormalities ball spin and skew.
Taken together these problems inevitable result is that in many sports (especially baseball), "natural turf revival" appeared, many playgrounds and turn back to natural turf here. IGH not have much choice, so to retain the artificial turf, but usually athletes, coaches, fans and physiotherapists prefer to see the game on natural turf. A hired to spend a lot of money signing players may be injured and may use the rest of their careers to rehabilitation in artificial turf, this possibility is no doubt that the club's owner is very worried, so they ordered a new natural turf.
But now, technology has been greatly improved. To replace this easy bruising of artificial turf, the company is producing a like grass turf polyethylene fibers. In the following such fibers is a synthetic soil. It is generally a mixture of quartz sand and rubber particles formed. There are companies even use recycled Nike training shoes, crushed into tiny flakes, it can make people feel like a natural step on the same turf. Although natural grass is a little different, but it can be used in any kind of weather conditions, because it has good drainage.
Rubber particles are worth mentioning. It was frozen and pulverized to become round particles and sand particles remain in suspension in together. Some athletes represent those tiny particles will rebound when the ball splash in all directions, and some players will even eat into many particles. Obviously, it takes some time to adjust to it. But manufacturers say that the particles during a period of time after the game, will be settling down in the following fibers. Different designs, different intensities and a fiber length of this turf has been widely used in football, baseball, tennis or golf. Colorado had a resort an 18-hole par 72 golf course applied artificial turf.
Injuries increased problems existed in the past can be resolved. Bill • Bashir - an orthopedic doctor said in a research report in 2003 sports drugs in the long run, this new type of artificial turf is safer than natural turf. Because of the growth of the natural turf inconsistencies, natural turf will continue to wear, flexibility gradually decreases, thus increasing the likelihood of ankle injuries or other injuries of.
Artificial turf is more durable than natural grass, the use of a 8--12 years. Artificial turf does not have the situation uneven, the situation as easily lead to injury to players. A company's product claims "will not rot, mildew, will not hurt the foot, not hydrolysis, does not pollute the air, will not allow bacteria to invade," This is in stark contrast with the natural turf. Occasional scrub more illustrates the artificial turf with little time and effort to maintain. However, we can not inspire prematurely, because not everyone can start to accept this new high-tech turf. Steve • Thinley, former manager of England's Wembley Stadium, said: "Today's artificial turf no problem, they are more than we saw in the 1980s, those horrible artificial turf did better, but their maintenance can not free in a dark place, they are still easy to grow moss and algae. In cold climates, they are still frozen. So subsoil heating, washing, and drainage is very important. Also, when the validity of the fast artificial turf At the end of, how do you deal with those plastic it? "
Although Steve dogs • Tinley have concerns, artificial turf football industry companies, no doubt, a great market. They must seek the approval of UEFA, or, a better approach is to complete is called "FIFA artificial turf on the quality of the idea of" rigorous testing program, which was supported by the authority of FIFA's recommendation is necessary a. Once they have been approved, while the test was successful and the global major groups within the wider recognition of the artificial turf, the artificial turf will have a very bright prospect.
Artificial turf is a non-life plastic fiber products as raw materials, made by the method proposed by artificial turf. It is the solution to the use of high strength, extremely unfavorable growing conditions and other natural and not difficult to grow grass planting is an important way to the lawn. Compared with natural grass, artificial turf has a very distinct advantages and disadvantages. As can be all-weather use, subject to rain, snow weather little effect; easy maintenance, low maintenance costs; material protection, surface layer recyclable, etc., it is irreplaceable natural turf, therefore, artificial turf is ideal for comparing the frequency of use high primary and secondary school playground or a variety of training courses. However, the artificial turf is used in chemical fiber materials, and asphalt or concrete as a base, so its surface hardness, poor cushioning properties, can easily lead to ankle and knee injuries athletes; while its surface temperature changed much, especially in in the summer, the maximum temperature of 52 ℃, such high temperatures cause a great impact on the competitive status of athletes and the environment will be.
2, artificial grass and comparative analysis of the characteristics of natural grass
2.1 turf influence on the players performance requirements
1) shock-absorbing properties: natural turf requires between 50% -70%, artificial turf requires between 55% -70%.
2) deformation behavior: For natural turf, the flooding of large deformation and drying muddy turf grass is little or no modification;
Artificial turf deformation degree between 1-7 mm.
3) non-slip performance: Natural turf requires 0.6-1.0, 0.6-1.0 artificial turf requirements.
4) Resistance: natural turf resistance value of 25-50 Nm; artificial turf resistance value of 35-45 Nm.
5) sliding distance: natural turf sliding distance of 0.20 to 0.55 m; artificial turf sliding distance of 0.25 to 0.45 meters.
2.2 turf on the ball
1) The vertical jump height: The value of natural turf of between 25% -45%; value of artificial turf of between 30% -42%.
2) the ball rolling speed: values ​​of natural turf is 4 m -10 m; numerical artificial turf is 4 meters -10 meters.
3) different angles ball bouncing situation: In 25 degree corner, the bounce speed 50 km / h, the height of 60% to 80%.
2.3 field test
1). Slope <1.0%.
2). Flatness (macro) within 3 m of less than 10 mm.
3) flatness of less than 300 mm 2 mm.
4) ground permeability greater than 180 mm / h.
3, the laying of artificial turf issues should be considered
In recent years, with the construction of artificial turf technology updates and fibrous materials and the development of the filling material, so many shortcomings artificial turf, such as surface hardness, buffer poor performance gradually improved, of course, these are based on the correct choice of materials and lawn guarantee under the premise of scientific and reasonable construction technology and quality in order to be realized. Prior to the laying of artificial turf, we should mainly consider the following factors: the type of artificial turf, the artificial turf fiber material (PP or PE) with; type (sand, rubber pellets or a mixture of both) filling material and filling depth; drainage design.
3.1 Artificial turf type selection
Turf artificial turf surface can be divided into two types: mosaic and braided. Woven nylon weave turf, finished a blanket. Compared with fascicles turf mosaic, woven artificial turf complex production process, the price is relatively expensive, lawn surface hardness, good cushioning properties, but even the lawn is good, strong and durable, ideal for tennis, hockey, lawn bowling movement. Mosaic compared with woven grass lawn, leafy longer fiber length and vary widely, ranging from 12mm to 55mm can be, and can be adjusted according to specific needs. The grass filling quartz sand, rubber pellets or a mixture of both, etc. Appearance performance is closer to natural grass, indoor and outdoor installations, suitable for soccer, rugby, baseball and so on.
3.2 Production of materials and choice of artificial turf
Artificial turf production materials generally two types: polypropylene (Polypropylene, PP) and polyethylene (Polyethylene, PE). Artificial turf PP solid material, the smaller the buffer force, generally applies to the impact of the smaller sports such as tennis. The artificial turf is soft PE material, good cushioning properties, small injuries to athletes for larger impact sports such as football and rugby. You can also mix the two materials to make artificial turf, so can combine the advantages of both, to meet the special needs of the game. For some high-intensity sports competitions, in order to improve the game quality and minimize damage to the athletes, the choice of artificial turf, in general to choose comparatively high fiber materials, usually 25 ~ 50mm, but also to choose PE or PE artificial turf / PP composite material of artificial turf. Construction of artificial turf stadium, at the choice of the height of the artificial turf, the general court to consider the overall budget, are comparatively high artificial turf, its construction and maintenance cost is also relatively high in many European school playground often choose height of 19mm lawn, 25 ~ 32mm height artificial turf it is entirely possible to provide a high quality playground, and a number of professional highly artificial turf stadium is usually selected in 50 ~ 55mm, the height generally considered the upper limit of the ideal artificial turf. Some American football stadium, artificial turf height greater, about 70mm, but under normal circumstances, such a high artificial turf stadium rare.
3.3 filling artificial turf
Select filler material 3.3.1
Artificial turf filling material is generally sand or rubber granules, sometimes mixing the two to use, when used in combination, the ratio of the two depending on the specific circumstances, the usual mix ratio of 70% to 30% rubber particles of sand. 100 percent in the past often used sand as a filler, in order to increase the stability of lawn at the base, but with artificial turf manufacturing process matures, its relatively basic manufacturing has been very perfect, so in the past to fill sand to stabilize the turf practice It has gradually been eliminated, now filled with more ways to use 100% of rubber particles. Filled with sand or rubber particles are mostly medium-sized, and before filling be certain to wash. For larger number of impact strength sports such as football, soccer, etc., should be appropriately increased the proportion of the rubber particles to minimize athlete injury. For those small impact strength or no impact action sports venues, such as tennis courts, as long as the venue uniform hardness can be, do not ask for cushioning property, and therefore, the choice of filler material on a larger room.
3.3.2 filling depth
Artificial turf quartz sand or rubber particles fill depth of the high beam depending on the purpose and lawn selected. For the impact strength of a larger movement, the choice of a long leaf bundles filled with artificial turf and deeper fillers, generally artificial turf football field filled with suitable depth from the tip 5mm; requirements for the formation of high homogeneity and good sports such as hockey, leaf beam can be appropriately reduced, fill depth can be increased, even with the lawn surface can be flat. Pennsylvania State University study shows that the artificial turf football field, a rebound and the surface hardness of the football stadium, to some extent can be controlled by the type of filler and filler depth.
3.4 artificial turf and drainage design
Some artificial turf drainage system design, grass mat permeable base layer in the design of drainage channels, construction of the structure of such a lawn more complex, higher cost. However, some systems did not design the drainage system, it would have to rely on the natural slope of the surface drainage, and therefore require a higher surface construction.
Prior to construction of artificial turf lawn in order to ensure the quality and cost-effective, these four factors should be the main consideration. In addition to these four main factors, there are other factors such as processing, bonded with glue of choice grassroots. In short, the actual construction of the project should be put into the economy, the actual use of the characteristics of the various factors lawn with investors and other factors fully integrated with scientific theories and technology as the basis to achieve the greatest degree of economic, suitable and effective principles.
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