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Application of artificial turf
writer: admin    Date: 2015-05-17 19:48
In recent years, artificial turf stability, lawn maintenance, slip resistance and appearance of color, and so has been significantly improved, and increasingly close to natural grass, which are increasingly being applied in the international arena. This article focuses on the artificial turf at home and abroad technical development and market application, and on artificial turf and natural grass maintenance costs detailed comparative analysis.
An overview of the development of artificial turf
      
Artificial turf is widely used in official venue collective sports such as American football, baseball, softball, hockey and rugby and other projects. 1994 World Baseball Association began using artificial turf to undertake a major tournament. And has the world's largest audiences in the football field, the FIFA (FIFA) and UEFA (UEFA) was first used as a formal recognition of the artificial turf playing field and encourage major football clubs such as Real Madrid, Barcelona , A A Fox and other football clubs to adapt artificial turf playing field. Subsequent Moscow European Championship, Spain Francophnio World Championship venues have also used artificial turf.
1996 Houston Astrodome stadium PA laid artificial turf for the first time, after a few years, North America has more than 2,000 man-made lawn project, continental Europe has nearly 3 000 artificial turf and put into use. For artificial turf technology, the safety and security of the population is a priority activity. Depending on the application results Fieldturf Canadian company, compared with the safety performance of natural grass, engaged in sports or events on the artificial turf athlete muscle strain can be reduced 74% probability, torn ligaments can be reduced by 32%, brain trauma can fell 55 percent, neck injuries can be reduced by 47%.
Environmental and landscaping purposes, the artificial turf can be used in airports, apartments, offices, retail stores, hotels, gas stations, churches, parking lots, public buildings, swimming pools, commercial and entertainment and so on. Landscape uses used artificial turf life is generally 8 to 12 years experience in the implementation of the company in accordance with Fieldturf 15,000 man-made lawn projects, the use of artificial turf than conventional natural turf - saving up to 70%. The ROI artificial turf project is also very satisfactory, which beautify the landscape class project return of 100% to 200%, kitchen facilities class rate of return of 75% to 125%, bathroom 20% to 120% category, swimming pool from 20% to 50%.
When people watch football, tennis, hockey and so on live television, the color and appearance of artificial turf also achieved great success on the visual effects, but this time the European market, with PE and PP as the main polyolefin artificial turf yarn also has formed a industrial production scale. Following fibrosis Biansi lawn, diamond, flat and shaped monofilament grass yarn low waist triangular cross-section, two-component or three-component yarn lawns have also entered the market. In recent years, artificial turf yarn elastic recovery, fiber surface characteristics and biomechanical properties (Biomechanical) are all achieved significant improvements.
Artificial turf does not need mowing trimming, also without irrigation water. Waste turf fibers, backing and filling cushion can be 100% recycled. Currently artificial turf research and development, production, quality inspection, installation, maintenance and lawn waste recycling has formed a complete industrial chain. Therefore, not only with artificial turf excellent performance, but also has environmentally friendly features.
Good performance and environment-friendly features to promote the continuous development of the artificial turf market. Fieldturf company's artificial turf project has reached 15,000, the company's aviation-level artificial turf has been used in Hong Kong International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, and the US Naval Air Station Houston airport. Dutch company TenCate artificial turf has been used in the 2000 Sydney Olympics, hockey venue in 2004 Athens Olympic Games and the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. In June 2009, the International Football Federation artificial turf as "the future of football" and the construction of sports facilities in Europe and the use of artificial turf in the global outlook taking a very optimistic attitude. Football is a global sport with one of the largest groups to participate and watch, for synthetic turf products is a huge market, but also a high-tech, environmentally-friendly higher areas.

Production and technical features two artificial turf yarn
      
2.1 artificial turf yarn manufacturing process
Widespread use of artificial turf yarn PE, LLDPE, HDPE, PP and PA for raw materials. Its process is divided into four parts, namely screw extruder and forming systems, drawing area, relaxation area and a winding device setting. Figure 1 is artificial turf yarn production process.
Artificial turf yarn official venue used more stringent quality requirements, usually producing equipment selection Φ100 mm screw extruder, dual spin component in the form of a spinning head diameter Φ425 mm, equipment capacity at 250 ~ 350 kg / h of between production line processing speed 250 ~ 450 m / min.
Currently twisted yarns artificial turf can be used Oerlikon Barmag (Barmag) company DD2000GT twisting machine, the device can process PA, lawn polyolefin yarn processing fineness in the range of 8 000 ~ 14 000 dtex, the production rate 70 ~ 250 m / min, the yarn twist can be controlled within 20 to 40 twists / m. In the twisted yarn production may also use Swiss Rieter (Rieter) the company's DT660 type twisting machine, processing speed 70 ~ 250 m / min, twisted yarn package weight 6 kg.
Texturing general use 8550 dtex, 6200 dtex yarn lawns. More use in the processing of the spiral cladding yarn 8550 dtex, 62 000 dtex specifications of raw silk, spiral cladding mostly for polyester yarn DTY, spiral cladding finished yarn count of up to 30 to 55 / m.
Artificial turf weave usually tufted or woven craft, developed by the United States dedicated to the Berkshire turf hockey venue "Elite" is using the knitting process.
US Polyturf company XTP series tufted artificial turf race for the use of 11 000 dtex of PE monofilament grass yarn, yarn thickness of 150 μm. Tufted process: 0.5 inches gauge, number of turns per yard to 10,810, the number of turns per square yard to 7776, pile height 60 mm, product weight 147 kg / m2. The basic performance requirements of the artificial turf are: color fastness ≥ 7 (blue card), gray card ≥ 4, anti-UV stability> 6 000 h, at 15 gallons / (m2 • min) within the water permeability.
2.2 Variety and technical characteristics of the artificial turf yarn
Artificial turf yarn varieties diversified trends such as lawn yarn color, monochrome cladding yarn, textured yarn monochrome, color cladding yarn, twisted yarn and yarn deformation of cladding.
LLDPE, HDPE and PP fineness range of artificial turf yarn between 1 000 ~ 2 000 dtex, PA Lawn yarn is mostly between 500 ~ 900 dtex, usually takes six to eight shares of yarn merger 6 600 ~ 12 000 dtex Finished yarn used in the next weaving.
Environment and landscape lawn with a single silk yarn, with PP or PE as raw material, yarn fineness of 1 100 ~ 2 000 dtex, yarn thickness 110 ~ 150 μm, the fiber cross-section was flat shape, lawn yarn specifications include 8 800,11 000, 16 000 dtex other three species. The product is double yarn, with anti-UV properties.
Monofilament grass yarn class multi-sport use PP or PE as raw material, yarn fineness between 1 100 ~ 2 000 dtex, yarn thickness of 110 ~ 270 μm, diamond-shaped cross-section fiber, yarn specifications lawn 8 800/11 000 / 16 000 dtex. The product can also double yarn, with anti-UV properties.
Lawn sports venues used flat yarn or split lawn Flat filament yarns more to PP or PE as raw material, yarn fineness of 5 500 ~ 20 000 dtex, the thickness of 60 ~ 110 μm, fiber cross-section rectangular lawn yarn specifications 6600 ~ 11 000 dtex. The product was idyllic green or olive green, with anti-UV properties.
Use PP or PE flat yarn or split-type material of flat lawn filament yarn, generally used for land-laid turf. Single yarn fineness of 5 500 ~ 11 000 dtex, the thickness of 60 ~ 110 μm, fiber cross-section rectangular lawn yarn size 6 600 ~ 11 000 dtex. The product also showed a pastoral green or olive green, with anti-UV properties. Table 1 shows the playing field with artificial turf yarn quality indicators.
3 Advances artificial turf and fiber technology
      
At present the research and development of artificial turf fiber technology is entering a polymer material, artificial turf manufacturing processes and fiber materials for the Reform Period biomechanical breakthrough, the development of soft, high strength, long life, high-performance lawn yarn corporate survival and development needs. As Fieldturf company novel polymeric materials, processing technology and construction of the fiber as a business development and market expansion of 3 basis points. The company has developed as the "innovative artificial turf yarn" new variety has the following characteristics: ① base polymer has good tear resistance and resistance to degradation, while the development of the resin product has superior resistance to ultraviolet function; ②Fieldturf company and synthetic materials processing companies in Germany Motor company, using the latest precision extrusion system to ensure good quality grass yarn, which gives excellent turf yarn fiber strength and perfect surface reflection properties; ③ new turf yarns have intricate interaction of concave and ridge surface structure, improve the fracture points of the fibers and fiber similar to natural grass gives style. Expected in the next few years, monofilament synthetic turf yarn market share will have a faster growth.
Research 3.1 High performance three-component monofilament grass yarn
Two-component yarn spinning process is to improve the quality of one of the most practical method of artificial turf. But in the composite yarn drawing process, the two polymer components easy to peel defects limit its widespread use. To this end, Germany has developed a three-component Reimotec composite monofilament yarn turf, i.e., the use of LLDPE as the skin, so that the monofilament surface having low coefficient of friction, PA for the core, the fibers can be given the best bend recovery properties, The third component, i.e. between the two basic components of the adhesive layer can significantly improve the sheath-core component delamination condition, so that artificial turf filaments of elastic recovery properties and to combine the surface coefficient of friction.
With the development of nanotechnology, nano-sized powders can be added, aimed at achieving lawn monofilament functionality, improved anti-fungal turf yarn and flame retardancy. The LLDPE nano silver active substance as cortex, play a supportive role in the use of PA core raw materials, intermediate adhesive layer nano-sized alumina actives. The core part has two holes. This feature of the nano three-component monofilament yarn for artificial turf, is a new structure of the product.
3.2 The new artificial turf yarn
Textured yarn and filament has a special soft feel has become a new generation of turf yarn. In recent years, one-step double yarn, and various different cross-sectional thickness of monofilament grass yarn has entered the market. Czech Lanex has developed a cross-sectional geometry of the monofilament was used as artificial turf yarn. LLDPE is used as the raw material, diamond-shaped cross-section monofilament yarn, yarn size 200/1 100/1 375 dtex, typically 6-8 shares are combined into yarn 8 800 ~ 12 000 dtex yarn before weaving lawn. Diamond turf yarns have excellent vibration energy release function, as well as very good bend recovery properties.
Netherlands Tencate company can provide to PE as raw materials, low waist triangular cross section and flat intermediate projections profiled lawn yarn. The company has developed the tradename "Thiolon", through dynamic crimping process (Dynacurl) of PE series lawn yarn, with water retention, resistance to UV, good resilience and low heavy metal content and other characteristics, it has been used extensively for hockey venue. Table 2 shows the performance characteristics of Thiolon artificial turf yarns.
      For artificial turf yarn, anti-fungal properties are very strict targets, the United States Astro has developed a series of anti-fungal lawn yarn called "alphasan", the anti-fungal additive is a silver-containing zirconium phosphate ion exchange resin, the human body harmless, but has a broad spectrum of microorganisms antibacterial function. "Alphasan" anti-fungal agent, the amount of use in accordance with product specifications and can be adjusted.
Astro has also developed a technology that is artificial turf mold shield "Bio-shield". The technology uses a microorganism mechanism can not survive in the face crab, shrimp and crab shell chitin, chitosan as raw materials, then placed in a weak organic acid chitosan configured to biological screening agents "Bio- shield ". The shielding agent applied to the turf yarn, artificial turf bacteria can enhance the ability to mold growth and odors are suppressed. Currently the technology has been used for the company's three artificial turf Astro yarn series.
3.3 Development of artificial turf environmentally friendly technologies
Recycling technologies 3.3.1 lawn yarn
Development and use of artificial turf increasingly focused on its environmental friendliness. Artificial turf is now 100% recycled, as Fieldturf has developed specifically for the removal of waste lawn, collection and recycling technologies, and more than 4,000 artificial turf of North America into use / maintenance / recovery Reuse of the circulatory system. The company also has a special artificial turf factory engaged in waste removal, collection, grinding and pelletizing, and eventually processed into products, such as storage pad used, the storage drums lined highway, handbags and other back on the market.
3.3.2 lawn padding material harmless
Lawn padding material often used rubber pellets, sand or a mixture of both materials. Given the use of rubber material possible environmental hazards, since 2005, have started research polluting lawn. Use texturized yarn or high soft lawn turf yarns can reduce the amount of fill cushion. Polyturf developed a new generation of "Xtreme" lawn, the lawn is not filled cushion.
3.3.3 artificial turf backing completely recycled
US Envylown company established a special "Duraflo • EEBS" system, the relevant period of use of thermoplastic material over the first layer of artificial turf in the polyolefin backing and a second layer PP spunbond nonwoven fabric, PU etc. orderly reuse.
3.4 Regeneration bottle flakes produced artificial turf fiber
British Hitech Turf company prepared using recycled slice lawn yarn, namely "HT" series of artificial turf, turf pile height 30 mm, mainly used for children's entertainment and pets venue, the service life of about five years.
3.5 artificial turf series of products and quality certification
In order to satisfy and meet the demands of consumers, whether it is sports or landscape lawn ornamental lawn are a necessary requirement specifications and performance of specialization.
US companies such as stability Astroturf artificial turf products, slip resistance, and skin friction performance, shock absorption and other indicators are in line with the requirements of ISO9001, and was recommended as the official FIFA venue with lawn. Astroplay 3D / Z65X is dedicated to the artificial turf soccer PA series; AstroturfNSF48 / 90 is dedicated to the artificial turf hockey series PA; and Astroplay55N was supported by FIFA-approved artificial turf PA specifically for amateur football schools and training venues.
Tencate's Eagle company uses fiber obtained Aqua • Satia LSR series of artificial turf, pile height 12 mm, dedicated to the hockey arena, and by the World Hockey Federation (FIH) recognition. The company Asi • Court series artificial turf in XP • Pro16 models, pile height 16 mm, dedicated to tennis, from the World Tennis Federation (ITF) recognition.
Eagle's Eaglelawn series is dedicated to the landscape and the environment modified artificial turf. Fake American companies LXR polyolefin monofilament series dedicated to the residential area of ​​artificial turf.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of 4 artificial turf
Revenue Analysis 4.1 artificial turf
Time daily use artificial turf than natural grass to grow 40%, 3 can be clearly seen from the table, the annual yield of the artificial turf is relatively high, is about 2.5 times the natural turf.
Maintenance amount 4.2 Comparison of natural and artificial turf
In contrast, less artificial turf maintenance workload, only labor costs, equipment depreciation and re-dressing and other expenses. To 8 000 m2 to account for its annual maintenance costs of about $ 5000. The natural lawn maintenance project range, heavy workload, including machinery and equipment (13.5% service charge), manpower expenditure (11.4%), trimming costs (5.0%), fertilizers (9.2%), seed reserve ( 0.9%), repair the core costs (5.5%), lawn modification (18.2%), turf moving (0.4%), irrigation (1.6%), equipment depreciation and fuel (6.7%), water (10.3%), then Stripping repair expenses (16.9%), the total annual maintenance costs of about $ 52,500, 10 times more than artificial turf.
4.3 Analysis of the cost of artificial turf
To 8 000 m2 of sports turf fields, for example, use for 10 years, the cost of artificial turf and natural grass constituted as shown in Table 4.
Security 4.4 using artificial turf
In order to obtain safe and high-performance artificial turf, turf yarn biomechanical properties (Bio • Mechanical) widespread attention. From sports medicine point of view, the friction properties of the artificial turf is the most appropriate and affordable artificial turf for its torque shocks also have a good release function, so the probability of a match with a lawn, the athletes of accidents, such as the knee ankle and other parts of the non-contact wound can be reduced to a minimum. The study also found, and natural grass comparison, more excellent damping properties of the artificial turf, which is one less artificial turf sports injuries reasons.
Fieldturf company chose a special football field, for a period of three years, artificial turf and natural grass using experiments. From the results, damage appears athletes decreased: 74% reduced muscle damage, injury decreased 42%, 32% decrease ligament damage, reducing damage caused by violent movement of 22%, 19% to reduce the impact of damage, injury soccer shoe contact surface reduced by 10%.
Coincidentally, the same five-year trial of the company at another higher education institutions also showed the football field, artificial turf, the athletes of the brain and reduce the chance of neck injury by 47%, 38% lower levels of external damage, not 55% of the damage is determined to reduce.
According to the US NCAA trauma surveillance system, the risk of injuries in male and female college athletes were tested and the results show: for female athletes, the chance of injury to the upper surface portion of artificial turf was 11.2%, compared with 15.5 percent while natural turf; for male athletes , in the upper portion of artificial turf damage probability is 6.6%, compared with 7.8 percent while natural grass.
5 artificial turf market supply and demand and analysis
Foreign Market Development 5.1 artificial turf
It is estimated that the artificial turf market in the world, the United States accounted for nearly half of the share, Europe accounted for 23%, China accounted for 10%, the rest of Asia accounted for 8.5%, the Middle East and India accounted for 10%, Latin America accounted for 3%.
Artificial turf materials market constitute substantially: PE accounted for 68%, PP accounted for 24%, PA 7%.
By applications to points, accounting for about 51% of the football field, field hockey, 5%, 2% tennis, other sports venues about 4%, 33% leisure lawn, landscape or environmental decorative lawn accounted for 5%.
In the 1970s, with the polyolefin based synthetic turf has been formed in Europe for industrial production scale, some companies use the tufting process to obtain high-low pile artificial turf, and the venue for hockey, is a second-generation artificial turf . The sliding performance flat lawn yarn surface and quartz sand Cushion there might harm the athletes and therefore not apply to the football field.
1990 appeared to PE as raw material third generation artificial turf, turf yarn of security and usability have made a fundamental change, pile height exceeding 40 mm, Cushion material expanded to rubber particles and sand. Artificial turf comfort and uniformity to improve the conditions for it have entered the football field.
In the 21st century, progress in artificial turf production technology is mainly reflected in the following aspects: lawn yarn softness; properties of high performance fiber; new padding materials and no padding lawn development; the establishment of 100% recyclable artificial Lawn sustainable production systems; and other lawn products performance specifications and guidelines made significant progress, a new research method presents the fourth generation of the basic characteristics of the artificial turf.
5.2 domestic technology and market artificial turf
Development of artificial turf began in the early 1980s of the 20th century, it can be said basic synchronization with PP split fibers production. Currently turf yarn for domestic use mainly 11 000 dtex polyolefin tapes are part of the specifications for the import of grass fibers 8 1 250 dtex. A considerable number of companies such as Huizhou Li Mengta company, Beijing torch, Olin Wuxi, Kunshan three Thai companies and other organizations directly deposited Netherlands Tencate company fibers.
Currently engaged in the production of artificial turf hundreds of companies, employing approximately 220,000 to 28 million. Most enterprises to apply to the movement of materials-based industry project design and installation. Artificial turf fiber production less standardized, high-performance monofilament grass yarn research and development was almost blank. Currently the price of artificial turf domestic production of similar products abroad is about 1/3 - 1/4 (domestic artificial turf for $ 5 ~ 20 / m2, the price of similar foreign products 30 to $ 90 / m2), and mostly extensive management of low-end products or take "processing" mode products. Development of the whole industry a little better than the first-generation artificial turf level.
In the 21st century, it is important manufacturers in the world in the field of artificial turf ACT USA, the Netherlands Tencate companies have entered the Chinese market, the launch of their high stability, performance enhancement of the artificial turf and the recycling of waste products recycling technology and fast installation and construction system, has a fourth-generation artificial turf characteristics. Faced with global competition, if they can not improve the quality of domestic enterprises in the quality of the lawn fibers, it is difficult to enter the international sports field with artificial turf market.
Enhance people's health is China's basic national policy, which will contribute to a huge sports crowd. Based on existing domestic over 600 cities and counties, more than 2,000 colleges and universities need sports facilities and training centers, as well as the needs of the major sports venues and related training since the club professional, especially with the national "five "implementation of the plan, many provinces and cities in the sports building sports venues has reached" per one square meter, "the idea, it should be said that this is the artificial turf technology a rare opportunity.
In addition, with the implementation of the national "Twelfth Five-Year Plan", China significantly accelerated urbanization, environmental and landscape lawn decoration demand will have a faster growth. He had predicted that China could become the world's second largest after the United States synthetic turf market.
6 Conclusion
Artificial turf and the fibrous material is a high-tech, and the product quality requirements and very strict, because it is directly related to the athletes and other people engaged in physical activity and health safety.
In recent years, the world of artificial turf in raw materials, processing technology and bio-mechanical properties of fiber materials and other aspects of transformational progress made, but also show a certain degree of market potential, this is an opportunity for domestic and artificial turf fiber technology.